Sustained disease-free survival achieved with withdrawal of immunosuppression after rapid relapse of myelodysplastic syndrome following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation: a case report

IntroductionRelapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplasia is a challenging problem with limited treatment options. Attempts to induce a graft-versus-leukemia effect have been used with limited success.

In patients with myelodysplasia, sustained complete remissions have generally been limited to patients with long-term remission after transplant and those with low numbers of marrow blasts.Case presentationWe report the case of a 41-year-old Caucasian woman with relapsed myelodysplastic syndrome and a high blast percentage six months after undergoing an allogeneic transplant who achieved a sustained complete remission after withdrawal of immunosuppression alone.

Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of a reasonable period of observation after withdrawing immunosuppression to induce graft-versus-leukemia, and the potential effectiveness of that approach.

Published on: 2013-01-14

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